Private law concerns disputes among citizens within a country, and public law concerns disputes between citizens and the state, or between one state and another.Constitutional law regulates the main rights of citizens and state in accordance with the Constitution.

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Nations have always made political and economic treaties with each other.

International law is created to regulate relations between governments and also between private citizens of one country and those of another.

Criminal law deals with wrongful acts harmful to the community and punishable by the state.

Civil law deals with individual rights, duties and obligations towards one another.

As well as defining the powers of government, most constitutions describe the fundamental rights of citizens.

These usually include general declarations about freedom and equality, but, also some specific provisions.

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) was first adopted in 1950 and has now been signed by every country of Western Europe.

Law is the whole set of rules that are supported by the power of government and that control the behaviour of members of a society.

The law itself provides the basic structure within which commerce and industry operate.

It safeguards the rights of individuals, regulates their dealings with others and enforces the duties of government.

There are two main kinds of the law – public and private (civil).