Brief counselors have numerous maps to guide their thinking about change. Littrell has found most useful are: While these maps form the basis of his work, Dr.

These criteria are: The counselor and client mutually negotiate the goals of counseling.

Goals are reached when the client indicates one of the following: "I no longer have a problem," or "This is something I can live with." The nature of the counseling relationship is the defining aspect of all forms of counseling.

If the facilitative conditions of warmth, genuineness, and empathy are present, counselors increase their chances of being the helpers they want to be, even as they use some powerful brief counseling techniques, such as employing scaling, finding exceptions, asking the miracle question, and eliciting clients' sense of humor.

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Unauthorized viewing is prohibited., John Littrell, Ed D, demonstrates his approach to working with teenage clients.

This approach seeks to shorten the length of therapy by looking at the client's patterns of behavior and helping to change the patterns that do not fit the client's goals. Littrell works with a 17-year-old boy who is having problems with grades and getting into trouble in school. Littrell helps the client increase his sense of agency and see that he has more choices than he is currently aware of, which helps the client develop a concrete set of goals for change.

Brief counseling has nine defining characteristics (Littrell & Zinck, 2004).

These are not mutually exclusive from characteristics of other counseling approaches, but taken together they give brief counseling its uniqueness.

The nine characteristics are: What is the nature of goals in brief counseling?

Brief counselors find that helping clients set goals is a valued process that enhances client movement from where they currently are to a desired state in the future.